Peter Shoemaker and his children

The Schumacher family was prominent in the records of religious persecution in Kriegsheim on the Upper Rhine.1 Peter Schumacher was born around 1622, the son of the Mennonites Arnold Schumacher and Agnes Roesen. Peter was an early convert to Quakerism through the efforts of traveling missionaries. In 1665 he was fined two guilders for attending a meeting of Friends at Worms, a two-hour ride away from Kreigsheim.2  He and his brother George and other Quakers were fined for refusing to bear arms, and for holding religious meetings. The fines included one shilling sterling (imposed upon every Friend for attendance at each religious meeting), numerous cows, “a fat sow”, an ass, bedding, pewter, and from one-seventh to one-fifth of their garden produce.”3 When the local people protested this treatment of the Friends, the Burggraff John Shoffer “forbade their speaking much about it.”4

In 6th Month, 1677 Penn himself visited this part of the Rhineland.

“… we returned that night by the Rhine to Worms, from whence we … Walked on Foot to Crisheim, which is about six English miles from Worms. We had a good Meeting from the Tenth until the Third Hour, and the Lord’s Power sweetly opened to many of the Inhabitants of the Town that were at the Meeting; yea, the Vaught or Chief Officer himself Stood at the Door behind the Barn, where he could hear, and not be seen; who went to the Priest and told him, that it was his Work, if we were Hereticks, to discover us to be such, but for his Part, he had heard nothing but what was Good, and he would not meddle with us. … Poor Hearts, a little Handful surrounded with Great and Mighty Countries of Darkness…”5

In 1678 Peter Schumacher, his brother George, Christoffel Morrel, Hans Laubach, and Gerret Hendricus circulated a daring poem as a broadside, showing their defiance of the authorities.

“Let our proud foes fume and rage,
Let their power vainly storm!
God is with us in this age;
He regards their threats with scorn.
Though they hold us for their sport,
Our hope still is stayed on God!”6

The Quakers continued to be a thorn in the side of the authorities, until in May 1685 the government threatened to banish them.

“The Friends of Krisheim had still to meet the church-tithes and the Turkish-war taxes which were demanded of them, both of which they steadfastly refused to pay as being contrary to their religious principles. Their refusal also to stand sentinel at the town’s walls was the last straw which broke the patience of the electoral steward at Hochheim, Herr Schmal by name, who [petitioned] the government to order the banishment of ‘the foolish sect’.”7

On the 8th of May, Gerhard Hendricks, Hans Peter Umstat, and Peter Schumacher petitioned for permission to leave Kriegsheim. They needed passports to travel up the Rhine and out of German lands. It is not clear whether they received passports, but they probably did, since they appeared in Rotterdam by early August. There they signed contracts with the merchant Dirck Sypman for land in Germantown. Peter paid two rix dollars for 200 acres. Sypman, a wealthy Mennonite merchant of Krefeld, had no intention of immigrating himself; he had bought rights to 5,000 acres in Pennsylvania, to be laid out on condition that he settle a number of families there. Schumacher was to proceed “with the first good wind” to Pennsylvania, where the land was to be laid out.8 At the same time that Schumacher signed his deed, Gerhard Hendricks and Hans Peter Umstat signed similar deeds. It is possible that Sipman paid their passage as part of the deal.9

From Rotterdam they would catch a boat to London, and then journey across the Atlantic to Pennsylvania. Peter was traveling with four of his children. He had been married about 1655, but his wife’s name is not known.10 They had five known children before her death, sometime before 1685. One of the daughters, Agnes, was married to the Mennonite Dielman Kolb, and would stay in Germany. The others—Peter, Mary, Frances, and Gertrude—sailed with Peter on the Frances and Dorothy, and arrived in Philadelphia on 12 October 1685.11 Passengers arriving in Philadelphia were supposed to register their arrival with the authorities. This was largely ignored, but many of the passengers from the Frances and Dorothy were registered, including Peter Schumacher’s family and his cousin Sarah, Isaac Shepherd, Hans Peter Umstat, Garret Hendricks, Henry Pookeholes, John Saxby, and Aron Wonderley.12 Sarah Shoemaker, the widow of Peter’s brother George, came on the Frances and Dorothy with seven children and settled on 200 acres in Cheltenham.13

When Peter arrived he found that Sipman’s land was not convenient for settlement. “Pieter acknowledged that he had received 200 acres in Germantown from Sipman, which shall be delivered according to measurement by Herman Isaacs op den Graeff, for a yearly rent of two rix-dollars a year, “without any reduction, whatsoever the pretense may be”.14 But when he arrived in Germantown he found that Sipman’s land was “so far out of the way that said Peter Schumacher upon his arrival could not possibly go thither”.15 Therefore Herman Isaacs op den Graeff tried to preserve the contract between Sipman and Schumacher by granting to Shoemaker 25 acres in Germantown (adjacent to land Shoemaker bought from Abraham op den Graeff), plus 25 acres further north in Krisheim, and the remaining 150 acres in land of Sipman’s not yet laid out.”16

Peter and his family settled into the life of Germantown. In 1691 he was naturalized and made a citizen, along with his son Peter, nephews George and Isaac, and cousin Jacob. The Germans living in Pennsylvania at the time were eager to be naturalized, to ensure the legality of their land ownership. At the time Germantown had some independence, as Penn had promised, electing their own burgesses and enacting ordinances. Peter (now Anglicized to Shoemaker) served as a burgess and a justice.17 The Germantown people still had to pay taxes, and in 1693 Peter Shoemaker was on the tax list. He served on juries. One memorable case was in June 1701, when the jury decided that “the cart and lime killed the man, the wheel wounded his back and head and it killed him.”18 In 1704 Daniel Falkner went into the Germantown court and abused the justices, including Peter Shoemaker, railing most greviously” and using “foul language”. He went out crying, “You are all fools.”19

Peter was active in the affairs of the Germantown friends.20  Before they built a meeting house, they sometimes met at his house, “’in the meadow’ a quarter of a mile east of Germantown Road on Shoe-maker’s Lane now Penn Street, where William Penn preached to the people from the doorstep.”21 Peter served as a witness for Quaker marriage in Germantown, attended Quarterly Meeting as a delegate, and contributed to the building of a stone meeting house in 1705.22 Two of his children married under the auspices of Abington Monthly Meeting.23

Peter died in 1707 in Germantown. He had outlived his wife by over twenty years. “It is not known where he was buried, but it is presumed he was laid to rest in the old Shoemaker Burying Ground…on the south side of the present Cheltenham Avenue…just west of York Road…In the early Friends meetings, it is referred to as the Cheltenham Burial ground.”24


Children of Peter Shoemaker:25

Agnes, died 1705, married Dielman Kolb, stayed in Germany, where Dielman died in 1712. They had seven children. Several of the sons became Mennonite ministers and came to Pennsylvania.

Peter, born Germany, died 1741, married in 1697 Margaret Op den Graeff, daughter of Herman.26 Peter was a carpenter, active in public life in Germantown and in the affairs of the monthly meeting, acting as an overseer and repeatedly serving as a representative to the Quarterly Meeting. In 1701 he served as overseer for the school. 27 In 1703 he was appointed, with Isaac Shoemaker, to arrange for building a prison house and stocks. In 1717 he was chosen, with Thomas Canby, Morris Morris and Everard Bolton, to “comprize ye Mo: Meeting Minits, whereby they may be Transcribed according to ye mo: Meetings order.” He died in 1741 and left his land to his three sons, Isaac, Peter and John.28 Children of Peter and Margaret: Peter, Isaac, John, Mary, Margaret, Elizabeth, Agnes, Sarah.

Mary, married Reynier Herman van Barkelow. Van Barkelow was born in the Netherlands and came to New York as an infant. Along with his brother Harman, he became involved with the Labadists, a Pietist sect based in Holland that had obtained land from Augustine Hermann in Bohemia Manor, Cecil County, Maryland. Mary and Reynier moved to Maryland and had a large family.29 Reynier’s will was probated in 1713 in Delaware.30 In it he named his wife Mary, children Peter, Mary, Margarette, Daniel, Susanna, William, Herman, Jacob, Samuel and Rebecca.

Fronica, married about 1690 Isaac Jacobs van Bebber, son of Jacob Isaacs van Bebber, a Mennonite of Krefeld. Along with Fronica’s sister Mary and her husband, Isaac and Fronica moved from Germantown to Bohemia Manor.31 Isaac died there in 1723, leaving a will naming children Jacob, Hester, Christina, Veronica, Peter and Isaac. His wife Fronica had died before him.32

Geertje, married Peter Cleaver the emigrant, in 1695 at Abington Meeting. Her name is often anglicized to Catherine. Peter had immigrated to Germantown about 1689 and worked as a weaver. In 1699 Peter and Catherine moved to adjoining Bristol Township, Philadelphia County and raised a large family. Peter died in 1727 and named seven children in his will; Catherine had died before him. Children: Christine, Peter, Derick, Eve, John, Isaac, Agnes.33


  1. Hull, William Penn and the Dutch Quakers. There are several published histories of the Shoemaker family, including Benjamin Shoemaker, Genealogy of the Shoemaker Family of Cheltenham, 1903; Benjamin Shoemaker III (grandson of Benjamin Shoemaker), Shoemaker Pioneers, 1975; and Thomas H. Shoemaker, The Shoemaker Family, 1893. They primarily follow the line of George and Sarah Shoemaker.
  2. Davis, History of Bucks County, p. 296.
  3. Hull, p. 276.
  4. Hull, p. 276.
  5. Thomas H. Shoemaker, The Shoemaker Family, 1893.
  6. Hull, p. 285, translated from the German. Gerret Hendricks traveled to Pennsylvania along with Peter Schumacher, signed the petition against slavery in 1688, and should not be confused with Gerret Hendricks Dewees.
  7. Hull, p. 289. Hull erroneously substituted Hans Peter Cassel for Hans Peter Umstead. The correction is made on the Umstead web site of Chris Hueneke, at, accessed April 2020. This site has extensive documentation on Hans Peter Umstat, his family, and the background of the immigration to Pennsylvania.
  8. Pennypacker, Settlement of Germantown, 1899.
  9. Umstead site. The site has an extensive discussion of their departure from Kriegsheim and dealings with Sipman/Sypman.
  10. Some researchers said that her name was Dorothy and that they had a daughter Frances, probably a confusion with the name of the ship, the Frances and Dorothy. The part about the daughter Frances (Fronica) is true at least. Another name that has been proposed is Anneke Westenraede. There is no evidence for this. Yet another name sometimes proposed is Sarah Hendricks, but this is probably a confusion with his sister-in-law, wife of his brother George, whose first name was known to be Sarah. Her last name is not known, but is often said to be Hendricks.
  11. Hannah Benner Roach, “The Philadelphia and Bucks County Registers of Arrivals”, in Walter Sheppard, Passengers and Ships prior to 1684, p. 166.
  12. Some of these people founded families that spread through the colony, while others, such as Wonderly and Pookeholes, never appear in records again.
  13. Because of her numerous descendants, this area was later called Shoemakertown. Known children of George and Sarah were George, Barbara, Abraham, Isaac, Elizabeth, Benjamin and Susanna. Jacob Shoemaker, who was signed the marriage certificate of Peter Shoemaker Jr in 1697, was probably a cousin of Peter and George. He came as an indentured servant to Francis Daniel Pastorius, married Margaret Potts, settled in Bristol Township, and died there in 1722. He left a will. (Philadelphia Wills, Book D, p. 351).
  14. Op den Graeff was acting as the local agent for Sypman. Although Op den Graeff had become a Quaker, his family were originally Mennonites of Krefeld, and must have known Sypman well.
  15. Acta Germanopolis.
  16. Duffin, Acta Germanopolis, 2008, p. 467.
  17. Stephanie G. Wolf, Urban Village, 1976.
  18. Acta Germanopolis, p. 311. This is a rare American example of a deodand, a term from English common land for an object that caused a person’s death. The owner of the deodand had to pay a fine equal to its value. (Wikipedia entry for deodand) In 1701, William Penn wrote to James Logan, his receiver, “…look carefully after all fines, forfeitures, escheats, deodands, and strays, that shall belong to me as proprietor or chief governor”. (Correspondence of William Penn and James Logan, vol. 1) It is possible that the juror in this case was Peter Shoemaker Jr, but the record does not indicate this.
  19. Acta, p. 327.
  20. Wolf, p. 170.
  21. Horace Lippincott, An account of the people called Quakers in Germantown, 1923.
  22. Hull, p. 188.
  23. In 1695 Geertje married Peter Cleaver, and in 1697 Peter Jr married Margaret op den Graeff, daughter of Herman.
  24. Shoemaker, 1903; Ralph Strassburger, Strassburger Family and Allied Families, 1922. For a list of early burials there, see the Minutes of Abington Monthly Meeting 1629-1812, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935, pp. 305-6. This is actually a book of births and deaths, with an index in the front.
  25. Compiled from various sources.
  26. The certificate was signed at the top of the list by Peter Shoemaker Sr and Herman op den Graeff. Some researchers confuse this Margaret with her aunt Margaret Shoemaker, Herman’s sister, who married Rynear Tyson about 1684. Abraham op den Graeff also had a daughter Margaret, who married the tailor Thomas How.
  27. Not surprisingly, they hired Frances Daniel Pastorius, who had served the town for years as an official. As a literate man, he worked as a scribe, writing deeds and other documents, and recording the town records. Often called “the founder of Germantown”, he actually lived in Philadelphia at first and only moved to Germantown in about 1687. (William Hull, “The Dutch Quaker Founders of Germantown”, Bulletin of the Friends Historical Association, 27(2), 1938, pp. 83-90)
  28. Philadelphia County wills, Book F, p. 201.
  29. Mrs. John Spell, “The Van Barkelo Family in America”, New York Biographical and Genealogical Record, 1953, vol. 84.
  30. New Castle County wills, Book C, p. 16.
  31. Isaac’s brother Matthias also moved to Maryland.
  32. Maryland wills, vol. 5.
  33. Philadelphia County wills, Book E, p. 72.

Arnold Schumacher and Agnes Roesen

The Mennonites of the Rhineland in the 1500s lived at the whim of the rulers. They were not citizens, nor one of the three recognized religions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed). They were resented by the clergy and sometimes their neighbors, because of their independence and refusal to pay war taxes.1 Initially they were welcomed in some places, because the land had been decimated by the Thirty Years’ War, and people were needed to resettle it.2 Where they were welcome, they established colonies and made an industrious living especially as weavers.3

Arnold Schumacher and his wife Agnes were some of these Mennonites. They were married about 1620 lived in Neiderdollendorf on the Rhine, near the Siebengebirge (“Seven Mountains”). Arnold died before 1655, when Agnes, as a widow, sold their lands there, including meadows and vineyards, as ordered by the ruler.4 She appeared before the rent controller with her son-in-law Matthias Bonn, and two grown sons Peter and George, to assign guardians for her under-aged children.5 Nießen, widow of the late Arndt Schumacher, and Tisza Bonn, their son-in-law, as heirs, as well as Peter and Georg, their adult children, as well as Daniel Behren and Peter Rößen as prescribed guardians [for] the underage children of both Arndt Rößen and Tisza Bonn, namely Berndtgen, Arnold, Freuchen and Adlege.” Frohnhaus pointed out that it is ambiguous whether the four children belonged to Arndt and Agnes or Tisza (Matthias) Bonn, their son-in-law.] One of the guardians was Peter Roßen, apparently her father. The properties were sold to Gerhardt von Bonn and his wife Catherine for 1440 taler. After they paid 300 taler for debts, the rest was divided among the children.

The Schumacher family of Dollendorf may have moved to Dollendorf from another area of the Rhineland. It is possible that Arnold Schumacher, husband of Agnes, was the son of Arndts Henrich and his wife of Monschau, 120 km to the west.6

“… it is possible that their roots go back to a small Mennonite colony at Monschau, in the Rhine Province of Germany, just south of Aachen and a few miles east of the Belgian frontier. … At Monschau in the year 1597, is found a Henrich Schumacher and his wife and Arndts (Arnold) Henrich and his wife, Dedenborn…When persecution began in this area, and these Mennonite families began to lose their possession by confiscation, the colony appears to have moved to Dollendorf, near Lowenburg in the Siebengebirge hills on the east bank of the Rhine River, south of Cologne.”7

By the time Peter Schumacher was middle-aged, he was living in yet another town on the Rhine. In 1665 he was fined for attending a Quaker meeting near Kreigsheim, where he was living. Kreigsheim is 200 km south of Niederdollendorf, along the Rhine. Peter was an outspoken member of the Quaker community there, and had goods impounded for refusing to bear arms and for attending religious services.8

“Once the war was ended, however, their notorious diligence attracted the favor of the new elector, the Protestant Karl Ludwig ([ruled] 1648-1680), who needed nothing more urgently than settlers to restore his ravaged land. His mild immigration policies drew not only Catholics, Lutherans, and Reformed, but Mennonites and a even small Bruderhof of Hutterites from far-off Moravia as well. And so the surviving Palatine Anabaptist communities shortly became the base for new settlements of harassed fellow-believed from both north (The ‘Siebengebirge’ area) and south (Switzerland and Alsace)… Already in 1652 the church office in Niederflörsheim, the next village north of Kriegsheim, was complaining that foreign ‘Anabaptists’… had slipped into their community.”9

Finally Peter decided to immigrate. By 1685 his mother, wife and brother George were all dead. His brother-in-law Matthias Bonn remained a Mennonite and stayed in Kriegsheim.10

Children of Arnold and Agnes:

Peter, b. about 1622, immigrated in 1685, died in 1707.

George, b. ab. 1625, married Sarah, died before 1685 in Germany.

a daughter, married Matthias Bonn

possible others

  1. John Ruth, Maintaining the Right Fellowship, 1984, p. 26.
  2. Ruth, p. 28.
  3. Ruth, p. 30; Benjamin Shoemaker III, Shoemaker Pioneers, 1975, citing research by Wilhelm Niepoth and Walther Risler.
  4. Probably the Elector Philip William.
  5. The record was found and published by Wilhelm Niepoth and Walther Risler in Germantown Crier, 1957. The text can be found in several places online. The most helpful discussion is that of Andreas Frohnhaus of Niederdollendorf, who corrected some errors in the transliteration and translation. Viewing a copy of the original document, he noted that the German word “Eithumb” is not a man’s name, but instead means “son-in-law”, and corrected the name Treinchen (little Catherine) to Freuchen (little Veronica or Fronica). Frohnhaus’ comments can be found in a post at: His corrected version reads roughly as “[The four judges announced that before us appeared
  6. Dedenborn is a German surname. Her first name is not known.
  7. Niepoth and Risler, quoted in Shoemaker Pioneers.
  8. Numerous sources, including Hull, William Penn and the Dutch Quakers; Pennypacker, Settlement of Germantown; Davis, History of Bucks County.
  9. Ruth, p. 28.
  10. If in fact Peter did have a brother Arnold, he stayed in Germany. The 1655 record is ambiguous, as Frohnhaus pointed out.

Thomas Williams and his two wives

Thomas Williams appeared in Burlington, West Jersey, in 1686, when he sought to marry the widow Rebecca Bennett. There are no records to show when he immigrated, but circumstantial evidence that he was from Pembrokeshire, Wales. When the merchant Abraham Hardiman died of smallpox in Philadelphia in 1702, he left behind a will, naming among others his cousin Rebecca Williams, whose passage he had paid along with Samuel Carpenter. Carpenter was the richest man in the colony, but he had not paid Rebecca’s passage solely because he could afford it. He was married to Hannah Hardiman, Abraham’s sister.1 When Thomas William’s daughter Rebecca married Thomas Iredell in 1705, the certificate was signed, in the place for close family, by Hannah Carpenter, two of her children, and three Hardimans.2 It is clear that Rebecca Williams was a relative of the Hardimans, probably a first cousin.

The Hardimans were from Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire. George Fox visited there in 1657 and held a large gathering for worship.3 By 1681 the Quaker community was large enough to have a monthly meeting and multiple meetings for worship.4 On the 24th day of the 6th month (August) 1681, Abraham Hardiman of Haverfordwest married Diana Thomas of Lowhadon.5 The certificate was signed, after Abraham and Diana themselves, by William Thomas and John Hardiman, almost certainly the fathers.6 Two women of the Hardiman family also signed, Rebecca and Hannah.7 When Hannah Hardiman immigrated in 1683, the meeting at Haverfordwest gave her a certificate, signed by Abraham Hardiman among others.8 Hannah also brought a certificate signed by her mother “Jone”, giving her consent for Hannah to depart.9

Abraham and Diana were married in the summer of 1681 and a year later, in 7th month 1682, John, son of Abraham, was buried at “Nesthook”.10 This was not the home of the Hardimans as some have assumed; it was the burying ground for the local Friends.11

“…The earlier West Hook was considerably closer to Haverfordwest town, near the farms now called East Hook and Honey Hook. An old Quaker burial ground is located on or near the older farm’s grounds. You probably won’t find the name of either farm site on most present-day maps, although you will find East Hook and Honey Hook, both of which are near to the place that it was located, and some maps show the burial ground.”12

On the Ordinance Survey map of 1898, Westhook Farm is shown west of Marloes, adjoining Easthook Farm.

Some time after the death of their son John, Abraham and Diana immigrated to Philadelphia where they both appear in records of Philadelphia Monthly Meeting and where he worked as a merchant. Diana died in 1694 and in 1698 Abraham married the widow Rebecca Willsford.13

If Rebecca Williams was in fact a first cousin of the Hardimans, then her mother must have been a Hardiman, a daughter of John and Jane. Rebecca was not born in Pennsylvania; her cousins paid for her passage.14 From her marriage date of 1705, she was probably born between 1680 and 1685. Could her mother have been the Rebecca Hardiman who signed the marriage record of Abraham and Diana in 1681? If that Rebecca married Thomas Williams and had a daughter Rebecca, it would account for the family relationships. By this account, the mother died in Wales and Thomas immigrated without his daughter, presumably leaving her with relatives. He then remarried, and at some unknown date his daughter Rebecca came to Pennsylvania.15

When Thomas wanted to marry Rebecca Bennett, they needed permission from Burlington Monthly Meeting where he was living, and Falls Monthly Meeting in Bucks County where Rebecca was living near Cold Spring. Burlington Meeting gave him a certificate with no concerns.16 The Falls meeting appointed Phineas Pemberton to make sure that the estate of Rebecca’s deceased husband William Bennett was properly set aside for his daughters.17 This was settled, but Thomas still had to make satisfaction for his improper conduct. When he went before the women’s meeting to propose his intentions, he refused to remove his hat. He also said something disrespectful to the women’s meeting and its de facto leader, Margaret Cook, and was forced to acknowledge his error. He refused to write a paper at first, but complied the next month, removing the impediment to their marriage.18

Thomas and Rebecca lived in Burlington. At some point they had a daughter together, named Mary.19 The town had been settled early by Quakers, even before the tidal wave of ships to Pennsylvania in 1682 and 1683, and the meeting in the town of Burlington was founded in 1678. In 1693 Thomas bought a house and 40 acres of land in Burlington County from Bridget Guy, widow of Richard Guy. He and Rebecca probably did not live on this land, since in 1699 he gave a power of attorney to his wife Rebecca and Edward Burroughs to take possession of a 40-acre property above Burlington, bought from Bridgett Guy in 1693.20 If this was the same property, why did he wait six years to take possession of it? The land they might have lived on was the 160-acre tract bought in September 1694 from George Hutchinson, a distiller of Burlington.21 Did Williams combine these two tracts to make the 200-acre plantation that he sold to William West in November 1699?22

It’s possible that Thomas was selling off his property in order to leave West Jersey. In 1701/02 the grand jury in Burlington presented him for fornication. According to the records, the jury was “disturbed that Thomas Williams got his wife’s daughter with child.” He ran away but the daughter is “yet in the place and ought to answer for it.”23 The grand jury presented Rebecca Bennett, now wife of John Scholey. Her husband was fined five pounds to resolve the matter. Where had Thomas Williams gone? He disappears from the records until February 1706/07 when the will of Rebecca Williams, “widow of Thomas of Philadelphia, carpenter” was probated in Philadelphia.24 In the will she named her daughters Rebecca Schooly, Sarah Edwards, and Mary Williams.25 Mary was the executor. Rebecca Williams made no mention in the will of her step-daughter Rebecca Williams Iredell. Perhaps they were not close.

Child of Thomas Williams and a first wife, possibly Rebecca Hardiman

Rebecca, born about 1680 to 1685, possibly in Haverfordwest, Pembroke, Wales. She immigrated before 1705 when she married Thomas Iredell in Philadelphia. They moved to Horsham, where Thomas died in 1727. Children: Mary, Abraham, Rebecca, Robert, Rachel and Hannah.


Child of Thomas Williams and Rebecca Bennett, widow of William Bennett

Mary, born after 1686, unmarried in 170726


Step-children of Thomas Williams, children of William and Rebecca Bennett

William, in his father’s will of 1683, probably did not immigrate.

Mary, married to Thomas Chandler, in her father’s will of 1683, probably did not immigrate.

Rebecca, immigrated with her parents in 1683, married John Scholey Jr of West Jersey.

Sarah, immigrated with her parents in 1683, married Robert Edwards.27

Elizabeth, immigrated in 1683 on the Concord, married Richard Lundy, died before 1707.

Ann, immigrated with her parents in 1683, probably died before 1707.


  1. Hannah immigrated in 1683 and married Samuel Carpenter in 1684. They had seven children, including daughters Hannah and Rebecca, sons Samuel, Joshua, John, Joseph and Abraham. Samuel and Hannah lived in Philadelphia, where he was prominent as a merchant, as a Quaker, and in public affairs. He died in 1714. (Edward and Louis Carpenter, Samuel Carpenter and his descendants, 1912)
  2. Wedding certificate of Thomas Iredell and Rebecca Williams, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, Marriages 1672-1759, image 55. Thomas Iredell also signed as a near relative when Abraham’s daughter Mary married George Fitzwater in 1707 (image 66), and when Abraham’s daughter Deborah married Gilbert Falconar in 1709/10 (image 72).
  3. George Fox, Journal, 1827, vol. 1, p. 384.
  4. Mary John, “From Redstone to the Welsh Tract”, on the website of the Pembroke Historical Society, accessed April 2020.
  5. The certificate is on Ancestry, England and Wales, Quaker birth marriage death registers 1578-1837, Herefordshire Worcestershire, Wales, Piece 1365, Monthly Meeting of Pembroke, Marriages 1660-1771, image 20. Note that Piece 1365 also includes burials, in spite of its name.
  6. Deborah Thomas also signed. Was she Diana’s mother?
  7. Another Hardiman signed just above Hannah. The name is difficult to read and may have been crossed out.
  8. The certificate, in a later copy book, is on Ancestry, Philadelphia Monthly Meeting Arch Street, Certificate of Removal 1681-1758, image 13. The copy book was made in 1878/79 by Gilbert Cope, the eminent genealogist who copied many of the Quaker records on the shelves of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  9. The name of Hannah’s mother is always said to be Jane, but the handwriting in the copy book of certificates is quite clear and shows it as Jone. Gilbert Cope, who copied the original records, wrote in his introduction that he was careful to show the original spelling. Abraham Hardiman also signed Joan’s certificate.
  10. Monthly Meeting of Pembroke, Marriages 1660-1771, image 48.
  11. Many of the burials in the Pembroke Meeting records were at “Nesthook”. This probably should be West Hook. “A good many of the early Friends were buried at West Hook.” (David Salmon, “The Quakers of Pembrokeshire”, West Wales Historical Records, vol. 9, 1920-23, p. 27)
  12. George Prothro Coulter, “Hardiman of West Hook, not Nest Hook”, post to message board, PA-Welsh-Early, 2 Dec 2006, in response to a question about the location of “Nesthook”. Coulter had seen minutes of the Quaker meetings, marriage records and old maps, at both local records offices and the national library of Wales. He must have been doing research into his Quaker roots. The Protheroe family appears in the records of Pembroke MM.
  13. Abraham had three daughters with Diana—Rebecca, Mary (married George Fitzwater), and Hannah (married Gilbert Falconer). With Rebecca he had a daughter Deborah (married George Claypoole). He makes the relationship explicit in his will, where he called Deborah “the only child I have by her”. (Philadelphia County wills, book B, p. 189)
  14. This fact alone shows that she could not have been a daughter of Thomas and Rebecca Bennett, as many researchers assume. In addition, if more evidence is needed, Rebecca and William Bennett had a daughter Rebecca who married John Scholey in 1697 at the house of her stepfather Thomas Williams. Thomas and the younger Rebecca were later accused of fornication (not incest) by the Burlington Court, and in the records Rebecca was referred to as “his wife’s daughter”.
  15. Rather unfortunately for researchers, Thomas’ second marriage was to a woman named Rebecca (Rebecca Bennett, widow of William Bennett) who already had a daughter Rebecca (Rebecca Bennett, who married John Scholey). There is a precedent, even in this family, for adult children immigrating without their parents. When William and Rebecca Bennett came in 1683, their daughter Elizabeth came on another ship, the Concord, as a servant to James Claypoole. (Marion Balderston, James Claypoole’s Letter Book, p. 222) This seems odd, since William had bought 1000 acres of land in March 1682; he may have been cash-poor after that purchase.
  16. Minutes of Burlington Monthly Meeting, 5th month 1686 and 7th month 1686.
  17. In his will, written in 6th month 1683 in Middlesex County, England, William Bennett left 800 acres to his four daughters—Elizabeth, Rebecca, Ann and Sarah—and the residue of his estate to his wife Rebecca. (Bucks County wills, book A, p. 9; Philadelphia County deeds, book E3-5) The Bennetts arrived in Pennsylvania in 9th month 1683, and William died just four months later.
  18. Minutes of Falls men’s meeting, 9th month 1686 through 12th month 1686.
  19. Mary Williams would later appear at an executor of her mother’s will. It is odd that they named a daughter Mary, since William Bennett named a daughter Mary in his will, written in 1683 and proved in 1685. That Mary was married to Thomas Chandler, and since no land was bequeathed to her in Pennsylvania, it is likely that she stayed in England. When William Bennett registered the arrival of his family in 9th month 1683, he included his wife Rebecca and three daughters Rebecca, Ann and Sarah. (“The Philadelphia and Bucks County Registers of Arrivals”, edited by Hannah Benner Roach, in Walter Sheppard (ed), Passengers and ships prior to 1684.)
  20. West Jersey, New Jersey Deeds 1676-1721, John D. Davis, part view on GB. Richard Guy is supposed to have come with Fenwick on the Griffith in 1675.
  21. John D. Davis, West Jersey, New Jersey Deed Records, p. 156.
  22. Deed on November 22, 1699.
  23. The Burlington Court Book 1680-1709, edited by George Miller and Henry Reed, 1998, p. 261, 266, 271.
  24. Philadelphia County wills, book C, p. 49.
  25. There was no mention of her other daughters with William Bennett. They may have died without issue. Elizabeth Bennett married Richard Lundy; Rebecca married John Scholey Jr; Sarah married Robert Edwards; Mary married Thomas Chandler. Ann is not known to have married.
  26. She was the executor of her mother’s will.
  27. Named in her mother’s will and in a deed to Ezra Croasdale in 1702. (Minutes of the Board of Property, 1705)

Thomas Roberts and Eleanor Potts

Thomas Roberts was a Welshman who emigrated to Pennsylvania as a young man around 1699.1 By some accounts he sailed on the Canterbury, along with William Penn, who was returning to Pennsylvania after an extended stay in England.2 Roberts lived in Bristol Township, on the Old York Road, and worked as a stone mason.3 Germantown surged in population around 1745 to 1767 and there would have been much work there for a stone mason.4 He is traditionally said to have helped build the meeting house in Germantown.5 Friends there originally met in members’ houses, traditionally the house of Thonis Kunders, but in 1705 they decided to build a new meeting house and asked Abington Monthly Meeting for help. Subscriptions were raised and in September Heifert Papen donated fifty acres for the meeting house (and presumably a burying ground as well).6 Since that was the closest meeting to Bristol, Thomas probably attended the Germantown meeting for worship and may have helped with the building.7

In 1705 he married Eleanor Potts under the auspices of Abington Monthly Meeting.8 Eleanor was an orphan who had come over in 1698 with her sisters and brothers.  Their father John had died in Wales and their mother was presumably also dead. Her sister Mary and brother John were placed as apprentices by Philadelphia Monthly Meeting. It is not known where Eleanor lived until she married Thomas.

In 1713 Thomas bought 200 acres in Bristol on Tacony Creek. He was taxed on this land in 1734.9 He owned this land until 1753 when he and Eleanor gave it to their son John for love and affection.10 In 1739 Thomas bought a four-acre lot in Germantown, on the Germantown road, adjoining the burying ground. In 1748 they sold two acres of this lot to Samuel Bell.11

Thomas appears often in the records of Abington Monthly Meeting.12 In 1725 he was named as an elder to attend meetings (along with Reynear Tyson of Abington and John Duncan of Byberry. He was an overseer.13 He attended the Quarterly meeting several times. In 1750 he and John Hammer were appointed to attend burials.14 He and sometimes Eleanor attended wedding at Abington meeting and signed as witnesses.15 She was an elder of Abington at her death.16 Three of their children married under the auspices of Abington Meeting.

He died in 1756 in Germantown.17 He left a will naming Eleanor and children Thomas, John, Mary and Sarah (deceased), as well as two grandsons, Thomas Jones and Thomas Roberts Jr.18 The inventory of Thomas’ estate, taken 20th 8th month 1756, showed household goods, one cow and one horse and two properties, one in Germantown and one on Gilberts Alley. The total value was a respectable £587.19 Eleanor died before 8th month 1768, when Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting reported that Eleanor Roberts, an elder of Abington, had died.20

Children of Thomas and Eleanor:

Mary, born about 1706, married 1727, at Abington Meeting, Peter Tyson, son of Rynear and Margaret. They lived in Abington, where Peter was a farmer. He died in 1791, and left a will naming his four surviving children: Rynear, Thomas, Margaret, Peter. His daughter Eleanor died before him, as did his wife Mary. His substantial estate was not settled until 1804.21

Thomas, born 1709, died 1757 in Germantown.22 Thomas married in 1734 at Abington Rachel Livezey, daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth.23 Thomas worked as a mason and was living in Bristol in 1743 when he bought 40 acres from Thomas Edwards.24 He died in 1757.25 The inventory of his estate included household goods, farming implements, and farm animals, for a total value of £241. Rachel died in 9th month 1760 and was buried in Germantown.26 Children: Thomas, Mary, Elizabeth, Ann, Jonathan, John, James, Daniel.27

Sarah, married 1749 Isaac Jones, at Abington Meeting.28 Thomas and Eleanor signed at the top of the witness list, along with Katherine Jones, presumably Isaac’s mother.29 Sarah died before her father and was named as deceased in his will written in 1753. She and Isaac had at least one child, a son Thomas, also named in the will.30

John. He is said to have married Anne Nanna in 1750 in a Reformed church, but this has not been confirmed.31 John was a miller and lived in Bristol Township. In 1753 his parents gave him a tract of 200 acres that had been conveyed to them in 1713.32 In 1756 John bought more land in Bristol, two tracts totaling 161 acres, from Robert Strettell and his wife Philotesia.33 In 1775 John wrote a will leaving his real estate to be shared among his five children, with the “mill seat near the quarry” to be reserved for the son Nathan.34 However in 1781, when four of the children partitioned his real estate, Nathan was “absent”. In fact Nathan had sided with the British during the Revolution, was declared a traitor by the Council, and forfeited his one-fifth share of the land in Bristol.35 The other four children were Israel, Sarah (married to David Evans), Eleanor, and Ann.36

  1. This date comes from the tradition that he sailed with Penn on the Canterbury. Otherwise he could have come any time before 1705 when he declared his intentions of marriage with Eleanor Potts.
  2. The earliest reference I can find to Roberts coming on the Canterbury is Theodore Bean’s History of Montgomery County, 1884.
  3. Several deeds refer to him as a mason. Note that Bristol Township was part of Philadelphia County before it was absorbed into the City of Philadelphia. It should not be confused with Bristol Township, Bucks County.
  4. Thomas Adam, ed, Germany and the Americas, vol. 1, pp. 444.
  5. Thomas Potts, Potts Family in Great Britain and America, 1901. Potts said that the minutes of the meeting refer to Roberts as working on the building. The Abington men’s minutes of 12th month 1704/05, do contain the request for assistance, but no mention of Thomas Roberts. There are no early records of Germantown meeting, since at that time it was only a meeting for worship, not a Monthly Meeting, and did not keep minutes.
  6. Abington Monthly Meeting minutes. Eleanor Potts’ uncle Thomas Potts was one of the trustees to whom Papen conveyed the land. (Thomas M. Potts, Potts Family in Great Britain and America, 1901)
  7. The stone in Germantown was distinctive, “flecked with mica, a kind of schist found only in a limited area around Germantown”, and known as glimmerstone. (Adam, pp. 444-445)
  8. Abington Men’s Minutes 1682-1746, image 26, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935, Montgomery County, Abington Monthly Meeting.
  9. Philadelphia County landholders 1734.
  10. Philadelphia County deeds, Book D6, p. 520.
  11. Philadelphia County deeds, Book D5, p. 470. Thomas was a mason of Bristol. They both signed by their mark.
  12. There was another Thomas Roberts, a member of the meeting, who lived in Abington and died in 1749 (He had a wife Elizabeth Tyson and daughter Priscilla and left a will. (Elizabeth was the daughter of John Tyson and Priscilla Naylor.) The widow Elizabeth married Jacob Lippincott in 1754 at Abington Meeting.) It is difficult to distinguish these two men in the records. The activities attributed to Thomas Roberts of Germantown (such as being an overseer) are almost certainly him, as well as activities after 1749, although there is also potential for confusion with his son Thomas. There was also a Thomas Roberts of Bucks County at about the same time, but he is not likely to be confused with the men of Bristol and Germantown. In March 1735/36 Thomas Roberts of Bristol, mason, was one of four men who sold a small lot in Germantown, which may have originally been intended for the use of the Friends Meeting there. (Philadelphia County deeds, Book G4, p. 214) The other men were Isaac Davis of Germantown, Samuel Powell of Bristol, and Griffith Jones of Germantown.
  13. Abington Minutes, 8th month 1748, show that John Hammer was elected overseer in place of Thomas Roberts. The old locution, somewhat misleading, is that Hamer was chosen “in the room of Thomas Roberts”.
  14. Abington Monthly Meeting minutes 8th month 1750. Friends did not believe in ostentatious funerals and policed this carefully.
  15. Note that they could not write and signed by mark. They witnessed the will of Ann Whartenby in 1738 (indexed as Whartnally), and signed by mark.
  16. Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting Minutes 1723-1772, on Ancestry, Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting, image 427.
  17. The records of Abington Monthly Meeting show his burial in Germantown as 8th month 1st day 1756. (On Ancestry as Abington Minutes 1629-1812, actually a record of births and burials)
  18. Philadelphia County wills, Book K, p. 540.
  19. Philadelphia County wills, City Hall, Philadelphia.
  20. Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting Minutes 1723-1772, on Ancestry, Philadelphia Quarterly Meeting, image 427.
  21. Montgomery County estate files, RW6825.
  22. He died just a year after his father Thomas. The record of burial for his father in 1756 named him as Thomas Roberts Sr, to differentiate him from his son. No record of the burial for the son has been found. The date of the son’s death can be assumed from the date of the inventory, which was traditionally taken soon after death.
  23. Mears said that Elizabeth Livezey was the daughter of Morris Morris and Susanna Heath. Others, including John Jordan in his Colonial Families of Pennsylvania, said that she was the daughter of Robert Heath and his wife Susanna. Susanna Heath, wife of Morris Morris, was another daughter of Robert and Susanna. According to her biography in The Friend, vol. 31, she was a traveling minister for Friends. The marriage of Thomas and Rachel was approved in 2nd month 1734 by Abington Monthly Meeting. Sarah Roberts, John Roberts, and Mary Tyson, Thomas’ sisters and brother, all signed the certificate, along with his parents.
  24. Philadelphia County deeds, Book I 17, pp. 73-75. After Thomas died, his widow Rachel put the land in trust for her son Thomas, and in 1761 the younger Thomas sold the land to the trustees of the Oxford Church.
  25. Administration granted to his widow Rachel, with Thomas Roberts, Thomas Livezey and John Shoemaker. Livezey and Shoemaker were both millers. (Philadelphia County Admin file #69, 1757, on Ancestry, PA Wills & Probate 1683-1993. Rachel affirmed the account of her husband’s estate in March 1759, and in 1765 an additional account was filed, after her death in 1760.
  26. Births and burials, Abington Monthly Meeting, in Ancestry as Minutes 1629-1812, image 231.
  27. Abington Monthly Meeting, Births and Deaths 1682-1809, vol. 1, Image 68, on Ancestry. The sons Jonathan and Thomas married sisters, daughters of Rynear Kirk and Mary Michener. (John Jordan, Colonial Families of Phila, 1911, vol. 1)
  28. Abington Monthly Meeting, Marriages 1745-1841, image 33, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935, Montgomery County. Isaac’s parents have not been found. Note that in 1738 Joseph Jeanes married Sarah Roberts at Abington Meeting. The identity of that Sarah’s parents has not been traced. This could not be a first marriage for Sarah, daughter of Thomas and Eleanor, as she would have been called Sarah Jeanes at the time of a second marriage.
  29. John, Thomas and Mary also signed.
  30. It is clear from the wording of the will that Thomas Jones was the only child of Sarah and Isaac.
  31. Mears. She gave Sarah’s name as Nanney. The records of the German Reformed Church, Philadelphia (not St. Michael’s in Germantown), show a John Roberts marrying Ann Nanna in June 1750. There is no way to tell whether this is the correct John Roberts. There was a Nanna family who were members of Abington Meeting.
  32. Philadelphia County deeds, Book D6, p. 520, 549. It was conveyed to Thomas Roberts of Abington, mason, in 1713 by Morris Morris and wife Susanna and Richard Wall and wife Ann. (Susanna and Ann were sisters, daughters of Robert and Susanna Heath.) The reference to Thomas Roberts as living in Abington may have been an error, since in later life at least he lived in Bristol.
  33. Philadelphia County deeds, Book D6, p. 524.
  34. This will is described in the partition deed, but it has not been found in the will books. The children may not have recorded it, since the property was handled through the partition deed. There is no mention of John’s wife in any of the deeds; she must have died before him.
  35. Minutes of the Council, Nov 1781, in Colonial Records of PA. The property of Nathan Roberts, traitor, was sold to William Rice.
  36. Philadelphia County deeds, Book D6, pp. 526-532. Note that all of these deeds were recorded together in 1783.

The orphan children of John Potts of Llangurig

John Potts was a Quaker of Llangurig, Montgomeryshire, who died there around 1698. He was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth Pott, one of eight children.1 Thomas had been persecuted for his Quaker beliefs. In 1675 he was brought before a jury for failure to attend services at the parish church.2 Thomas died before 1683, when Elizabeth immigrated to Pennsylvania with her daughter Jane in 1683. Three of her other children also came to Pennsylvania, but John did not live to immigrate.

John did not leave a will and his wife’s name is unknown, but she must have died by 1698 as well, because they left behind five known children, described as orphans, who were brought to Pennsylvania under the care of Quakers. The children came on the William Galley. In March 1698, the ship was hired by David Powell and John Morris, both of Radnor, who agreed to pay £5 for each passenger over 12 years old, and 50s for each child.3 The owner and master of the ship were to provide food and drink. The ship was to leave in May. Powell and Morris between them paid for 17 passengers.4 It is unclear who paid for the orphans of John Potts.

In 1699, John Austin told the Philadelphia meeting that “several orphans, children of John Potts of Wales, came here last year, their passage being paid, this meeting desires Edward Shippen and Anthony Morris to speak with the persons concerned, and see for convenient places in order that the Children be bound out apprentices by the next Orphans Court.”5 In early 1700 the meeting reported that “There are two orphan children of one Potts to be put out, Thomas Potts, being their uncle.”6 Mary was placed with Isaac Shoemaker for two years. In 1702 he requested an extension. “A Friends child named Mary Potts, having been with Isaac Shoemaker for two years, the time agreed is near out and she wants learning. That she may have what learning is sufficient, he desires to have her bound to him for some time.”7

Her brother John was apprenticed to John Austin to be a ship carpenter. Apparently he did not like it, since in 1703 he asked the meeting to find another place for him. In 1708 he complained to the meeting that he had served out his time of apprenticeship, but that his mistress would not discharge him.8

Children of John: born in Wales, around 1680 to 1690, “the orphans”9

Thomas, born about 1680, died 1752.10 He lived first in Germantown, where he worked as a butcher or innkeeper, possibly working for his father-in-law Peter Keurlis.11 In 1699 Thomas married Metgen (in the English-form Martha), daughter of Peter and Elizabeth, in a Quaker ceremony. Thomas bought and sold land, moving his family to Philadelphia and finally up to Colebrookdale, where Thomas Rutter had built an iron furnace on Manatawney Creek. Potts invested in the furnace, and later bought much of Rutter’s house, land, and estate. After Martha died, Thomas married a woman named Magdalen.12 He died in 1752, leaving a large estate. His will named his wife Magdalen and five living children: Thomas, David, John, Mary and Elizabeth.13

John, born about 1682, died about 1721. As a youth, after his arrival, he was placed as apprentice to his uncle John Austin, a ship carpenter. He married a woman named Rebecca and they are believed to have had four children, none of whom survived infancy.14 John died about 1721.

Eleanor, born about 1685, d. 1766, m. 1705 Thomas Roberts the emigrant, under the care of Abington Meeting. He was a stone mason. They lived in Bristol Township, Philadelphia County, where he died in 1756. Children: Thomas, Mary, Sarah, John. She died about 1766 in Bristol Township.

Mary, placed as an apprentice with Isaac Shoemaker, married first in  1707/08 Matthias Tyson, son of Rynear and Margaret, lived in Abington. With Matthias, she had eleven children, six of whom lived to marry.15 The children were Margaret, Mary, Rynear, John, Sarah, Elizabeth (died young), Isaac, Martha, Elizabeth, Matthew. Mathias died in 1727 and in 1732 Mary married Thomas Fitzwater Jr, son of Thomas and Mary. The Tysons and Fitzwaters were the largest landowners in Abington, digging and burning limestone as well as farming. He had six children, named in his will of 1748.16 Mary survived him.

Margaret, married Evan Morgan in 1709 at Christ Church, Philadelphia. In 1714 they sold a tract of land in Bucks County to Margaret’s brother Thomas .17 Three years later Evan was dead. Letters of administration were granted to Margaret (as Margery), her brother Thomas, and her brother-in-law Mathias Tyson. The inventory of the estate (taken by Thomas Fitzwater) was rather sparse, with a value of £49. It is not known whether Margaret married again.

  1. The name was always spelled Pott in the records in Wales, according to researcher Claudia Davenport-Sullivan, and as Potts in the Pennsylvania records. The generation of John Pott’s children seems to be the point of change.
  2. Thomas M. Potts, The Potts Family of Great Britain and America, 1901.
  3. “Welsh Emigration to Pennsylvania: An old charter party”, Penna. Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 1, 1877, pp. 330-332.
  4. Thomas Jerman paid for three passengers. Some of the Jerman or Jarman family came from Llangurig, the same town where the Quaker Potts family lived.
  5. Thomas M. Potts, Potts Miscellanea, 1907, p. 87.
  6. Thomas Potts was a miller and traveling Quaker minister. He did not marry until late in life, and may have found it difficult to keep a household of children. He had four siblings living in Pennsylvania: Jane (married to John Austin), Jonas, Margaret (married to Jacob Shoemaker), and David. In the end, John Austin took in one of the children. A cousin of Jacob Shoemaker took in another. One of the orphans was old enough to live on his own. It is not known where the other two, Eleanor and Margaret, lived before they married.
  7. Philadelphia Monthly Meeting records, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935, Philadelphia MM.
  8. Philadelphia MM records.
  9. Thomas Maxwell Potts, The Potts Family, 1901; James, Isabella, Memorial of Thomas Potts Jr, 1874; Ancestry tree of Claudia Davenport-Sullivan at
  10. John Futhey and Gilbert Cope, in their History of Chester County, claimed that Thomas came in the Shield in 1678, landing at Burlington. They were confusing him with the unrelated Potts family of Cheshire. Thomas M. Potts devoted a chapter, “Solution of the Old Potts Puzzle” to discussing the confusion; he strongly believed that this Thomas was from the Llangirig family, murmuring that anybody who had “given the subject intelligent study” would see this.
  11. Daniel Graham, Good business practices and astute match making, 1997. Chapter 1 covers Thomas Potts.
  12. Her last name is often said to be Robeson, but there is apparently no primary evidence for this.
  13. Philadelphia County wills, Book J, p. 464. A daughter named Martha died before her father.
  14. According to Thomas M. Potts, they had four children, none of whom survived infancy (named Rachel and Rebecca and an unknown son and another Rebecca). The widow Rebecca later married William Darby in 1724.
  15. Mathias left a will, Philadelphia County wills, Book E, p. 46.
  16. Philadelphia County wills, Book G, p. 340.
  17. Philadelphia County deeds, Book E7, v9, p. 214. Evan was a yeoman of Philadelphia County, while Thomas was a butcher of the city of Philadelphia. Margaret signed by mark.

The Pott family of Llangirig

The ancestors of the Pott family of southeastern Pennsylvania lived in central Wales, in the parish of Llangirig, Montgomeryshire.1 It is a countryside of rolling hills, and the land outside of Philadelphia would have looked familiar to the early Potts immigrants.2 The Potts were farmers and their wills mention cows, horses and especially sheep. To sell the wool from their sheep, they would have ridden five miles through the hills to the nearest market town, in Llanidloes. There they would sell their goods in the old timber-framed market hall, and shop for goods in the booths surrounding the hall on fair days.3 Until the mid-1600s, when some of them became Quakers, they would have gone to the local church, dedicated to St. Curig.4 The town takes its name from the church; Llangirig means the church or enclosure of Curig.5

In February 1672 John Pott of Llangurig wrote his will.6 He called himself a yeoman and began the will with the usual religious clause.7 He named seven children, but no wife. His wife, whose name was Anne, must have died before him. The first child named in the will is Thomas, possibly named for John’s father, who has not been identified.8 A Thomas Pott of Llangirig wrote his will in August 1654, and named his daughter Anne and son-in-law John Pott; this is believed to be Anne’s father, not John’s, in spite of the coincidence of names.9 According to Thomas’ will, Anne and John lived on Nant-gwernog farm on the outskirts of Llangirig.10 Since they had eight children by 1654, John and Anne were probably married about 1630.11

John was not a wealthy man. He left each of his children sixpence except one, the daughter Sarah. She was to receive livestock, grain and “all the rest of my goods”, on condition that she pay his debts and legacies and execute the will.12 (The will was proved in 1673 by the court of the Bishop at Bangor.) The others were Thomas, George, Margaret, Ales, Elizabeth, and Anne. Thomas could not read and signed the will by mark. It was witnessed by John Pott and Thomas Pott, an indication that there were other Potts in the area, about whom little is known, since they did not leave wills.13 Another witness was Edward Jarman. The Jarman family were Quakers and one of them, John Jarman, immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1683 and settled in Radnor.14

In the spring of 1675, at the court in Welshpool, four Quakers of Llangirig were charged with non-attendance at Church and holding conventicles.15 In 1677 the authorities raided the house of John Jerman of Llanidloes while a Friends’ meeting was being held. John Pott was there, and he was punished by having a cow and six calves taken from him for a value of £12.10.0. Seven Quakers were thrown into prison; he may have been one of them.16 This John Pott was probably not the elderly man who had made his will three years earlier. It was probably a younger man, a nephew or even his grandson John, known to be a Quaker. A Quaker burial ground was established on the land of Nant-gwernog farm, called Quaker’s Garden in 1708 when it was granted as a burial ground for an annual rent of one peppercorn.17 It is not clear when the farm first came into the possession of the family, or when the first family members were buried there as Quakers. Some of them were Quakers in 1693, including John’s grandson, son of his son Thomas.

“The Pott family were still Quakers at the end of the 17th century, for in a Minute of Montgomeryshire Monthly Meeting held at Dolobran, 5th month, 1693, is entered: ‘care is to be taken to have the house of John Pott of Llangurig recorded for a meeting house at next Quarter Sessions.’ This, of course, was after the passing of the 1689 Toleration Act which allowed freedom of worship. The ‘house of John Pott’ was the farmhouse of Nantgwernog … This farm is situated close to another, Fedw ddu, whose owner, one Thomas Hamer, in 1708 sold land to the Quakers for a burial ground.”18

Thomas Pott, the son of John

Thomas Pott, son of John and Ann, was born about 1632. His parents lived on Nantgwernog farm and Thomas would have grown up there, one of eight children. Around 1656 he married a woman named Elizabeth; her last name is unknown.19 Since they were Quakers, they would have been married in a Quaker ceremony, probably in the house of one of the members. He was probably the Thomas Pott persecuted as a Quaker in 1675. In Poole (present-day Welshpool), the grand jury presented nine people for absenting themselves from services at the parish church. They were David Owen Edward and Griffith Jarman, John Pott, Thomas Pott, David Jenkin and his wife Jane, Sarah Rees, and James Hamer.20 Two years later the mayor of Llanidoes came with the constables to a Friends meeting at the house of John Jarman and committed seven Quakers to prison and fined others, including John Pott.21 He was fined one cow and six “yearly beasts”, worth £12.10.0.

Thomas and Elizabeth had eight known children before his death. He died before 1683, and in that year Elizabeth emigrated with her daughter Jane.22 In 7th month 1684 they requested their headright, fifty acres per person granted to servants, and the Commissioners issued a warrant for a hundred acres to be laid out, plus a lot in the city.23 being a servant”. (Minutes of the Board of Property, Minute Book G, 3rd month 1703.)] A month later the Commissioners ordered David Powell to survey the land “among the Welshmen for the conveniency of the poor woman”.24 Elizabeth probably did not live among the Welsh of Chester County, since in 1685 she married Edmund Bennet of Bucks County at the house of John Otter near Burlington.25 Edmund had immigrated from Bristol, where he had worked as a tobacco cutter. While still in England he bought rights to 1,000 acres of land. In 1682, 300 acres were laid out for him and in 1684 the remainder was laid out. He served in the Assembly, was a justice of the peace for Bucks County, and was a member of Middletown Meeting.26 He and Elizabeth moved to Philadelphia, where he died in 1692, leaving his estate to her.27 She was no longer a “poor woman”. Elizabeth’s daughter Jane Austin was one of the witnesses of his will.28 Elizabeth sold much of the land in Bucks County between 1691 and 1696.29 She died in 1707 in Philadelphia and was buried in the Friends burying ground there.30

Some of the children of Thomas and Elizabeth immigrated, including Thomas, David and Jonas, while John and George did not. Those who did live in Pennsylvania were very close, frequently signing as witnesses for each other’s weddings and serving as witnesses or executors for wills and deeds.31

Children of Thomas and Elizabeth:32

John, born about 1658, died before 1696 in Wales, father of the five orphan children.33 His wife’s name is unknown; he is sometimes said to have been killed for his faith, though this is unlikely. Five of the children came to Pennsylvania in 1698 on the William Galley and were under the care of Philadelphia Monthly Meeting. The meeting found places where the children could be placed as apprentices, and all five of them lived to marry. The children were: Thomas, John, Eleanor, Mary and Margaret.

Thomas, born about 1660, d. 1719, in Pennsylvania by 1686, married in 1712 Judith Smith of Long Island, a late marriage for him. He

became a traveling preacher for  the Friends, traveling to England, Ireland, the West Indies.34 William Penn referred to him as “honest Thomas Potts”. He built two mills on Frankford Creek, Cheltenham Township. He lived in Bristol Township, Philadelphia County, and died in 1719. His will named his wife Judith and son Thomas.35

George, born about 1662, married a woman named Joan and had children with her in Wales. They immigrated in 1690, but George died at sea. Joan was a midwife. “She, with her four daughters, settled in Germantown, where she supported her family by means of her profession”.36 She was a member of Germantown meeting and witnessed marriages there. She died in 1740. Philadelphia Monthly Meeting minutes said that her testimony at meetings was well received.

Jane, born about 1663, d. 1734, immigrated with her mother, married John Austin in 1686.37 John was a ship carpenter and in 1696 they moved to Philadelphia, presumably for his business. He died in 1707, killed by a falling timber. Children: Elizabeth, Ann, Samuel and Mary.

Jonas, born about 1665, d. 1719, married twice, the second time to Mary Burson. At different times he lived in Germantown (where he served as sheriff), Gilbert’s Manor (later Limerick Township), Philadelphia, and Saucon Township, Bucks County. The last record of him is around 1740 in Saucon Township; there is no evidence that he moved to Virginia with some of his sons. Children of Jonas: David, Rachel, Elizabeth, Hannah, Jonathan, Deborah, Jonas.

Margaret, born about 1666, d. 1706, married Jacob Shoemaker, the emigrant, lived in Bristol Township, Philadelphia County. She was active in Abington Meeting, and attended Quarterly Meeting as a delegate. Jacob left a will in 1722, naming Margaret and his sons George, Jacob and Thomas.38, 39

Elizabeth, born 1667. She immigrated, possibly with her mother, and died unmarried in 1690. She was buried at Middletown Meeting.

David, born about 1670, d. 1730, m. 1693/94 Alice Croasdale, daughter of Thomas and Agnes

(Hawthornthwaite). Alice had come as a child in 1682 on the Lamb with her parents.40 David and Alice lived in Bristol Township, Philadelphia County. He was active in Germantown Meeting and served in the Provincial Assembly. In his will of 1730, he named his children Thomas, John, Jonathan, Elizabeth, Stephen, Mary, Rebecca, Daniel, Nathan, Ezekiel.41

  1. Llangirig is a parish, in the hundred of Llanidloes, in the county of Montgomery or Montgomeryshire. Llangirig can be spelled with variations like Llangurig or Llangirrig.
  2. The family name is always given as Potts in the Pennsylvania records, but in the records in Wales it is Pott. Claudia Davenport-Sullivan, who has studied the family carefully, suggested that it was changed in the generation of John Potts, who died in Wales by 1698.
  3. Wikipedia entry for “Old Market Hall, Llanidloes”, on, accessed May 2020.
  4. Edward Hamer and H. W. Lloyd, History of the Parish of Llangurig, 1875.
  5. Hamer and Lloyd, p. 3.
  6. The will is online at Ancestry, Wales, Wills and Probate 1513-1858, Bangor 1576-1858, Reel 460, Image 1121. Note that he was indexed for search purposes as Lott instead of Pott. (The orthography of his last name is slightly misleading in the will.) A transcription is on the Ancestry tree of Claudia Davenport-Sullivan, “This is the End (Potts)”, person John Pott, She includes in the gallery the images of the will and inventory, their transcriptions, and a map of Nant-gwernog Farm.
  7. The wording of the religious clause, and the use of the month name as February instead of 12th month, suggest that he was not a Quaker.
  8. There are apparently no extant parish records before the 1680s. This makes it difficult to sort out relationships, especially in a family where the names of Thomas and John recur constantly. A Thomas Pott of Llangurig wrote his will in August 1654; it was proved and the inventory taken in 1658. (See the image and transcript on the Ancestry tree of Claudia Davenport-Sullivan, person Thomas Pott, gallery page. Also online at Ancestry, Wales, Wills and Probate 1513-1858, Bangor 1576-1858, Reel 457, image 1115.) He names various children and grandchildren, but part of the paper has decayed and about a quarter of the middle is missing. The remaining wording, although specific, is difficult to interpret. Thomas left a legacy to “Anne my n’rall daughter wife of John Pott of Nant-ynernog”, to John Pott son of the same John, to Margaret “my gran(d child)… (of my n’rall s)onne John Pott”. The words in parentheses were added by Claudia Davenport-Sullivan as she studied the will. The word “n’rall” or natural did not mean illegitimate, but instead meant “a child of one’s body”. (Thomas Maxwell Potts, The Potts Family in Great Britain and America, 1901, p. 75) Claudia argued that since Anne could not have married her own brother, that there were two different men named John Pott, one a son of this Thomas, and another one who married Thomas’ daughter Anne. As she wrote, “It appears that he was specific in his description of his son-in-law as ‘John Pott late of Nantynernog’ and his son as ‘my n’rall sonne John Pott’, which provides excellent evidence that they are two very different individuals, not one and the same.” (Findagrave page for Thomas Pott, died Apr 1658, written by Claudia Davenport-Sullivan in September 2018). If the will were taken from a copybook, as most American wills are, one could argue that the copyist made a mistake in the name, but the digitized images seem to be from original papers, since they are in a variety of handwritings. The clerk who wrote the will signed his name, Morgan Evans. The implication of the existence of two men named John Pott, about the same age and living in the same place, is that the Pott family was more than just the family of this Thomas. He must have had siblings and cousins, many named Pott, and his daughter Anne married one of them. It is important to note that there was a large Potts family in Cheshire, England, which is often confused with this family. There is no reason to believe that the Welsh family intermarried with the English family at any point. (See the notes on Claudia Davenport-Sullivan’s Ancestry tree for the Pott family.) Some of the English Potts family came to West Jersey and founded a branch there.
  9. Anne Pott and her husband John Pott must have been cousins, either first cousins or more distant.
  10. See the footnote above for more detail on the will of Thomas Pott. Claudia Davenport-Sullivan includes an 1875 map showing the location of the farm in the gallery page for John Pott in her Ancestry tree. (
  11. Thomas Pott, father of Anne, wrote in his will in 1654 that she had eight children. He did not name them, except for John. That is the child who is missing in John’s 1672 will; he must have died before his father.
  12. The will was proved in the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Bangor on 21 May 1673. The other children may have received a portion as they reached adulthood; there is no way to know.
  13. See the discussion in the footnote above.
  14. The name could be written as Jerman or Jarman.
  15. E. Ronald Morris, “Quakerism in West Montgomeryshire”, Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. 56, 1959-1960, online National Library of Wales, accessed April 2020.
  16. Morris.
  17. Various online references, including the Journal of the Friends Historical Society, 1914, vol. 11, p. 107, an inventory of burial grounds and meeting houses in Montgomeryshire. It is not clear who donated the land.
  18. Morris.
  19. Some claim that her last name was Bassett. There is no evidence for this.
  20. Thomas M. Potts, The Potts Family, 1901
  21. Joseph Besse, Suffering of the People called Quakers, 1753, vol. 1, p. 757.
  22. Claudia Davenport-Sullivan suggested that Thomas was still alive when Elizabeth immigrated, which is improbable on the face of it. She said that the Historical Society of Pennsylvania might have letters that he wrote to her after she arrived in Pennsylvania. A search in the HSP catalog found no trace of such letters. The more plausible assumption is that he died in Wales and his widow came over as a servant.
  23. The city lots were originally given out as a bonus when people bought land in the countryside. People who bought more land got bigger city lots in better locations. The 50 acres of headright land were given to servants when they had served out their terms, between one year and seven years depending on the terms of the indenture. In 1703 John Austin requested a resurvey from the Commissioners of Property, for the 100 acres. The record is ambiguous about Elizabeth, but his wife Jane’s portion was for “[her
  24. Copied Survey Books, D81, page 403, image 202, online on the website of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, at, under “Images of all surveys”.
  25. Edmund Bennet was an early settler in Northampton, shown on the map of Thomas Holme.
  26. Craig Horle and Marianne Wokeck, eds, Lawmaking and Legislators in PA, vol. 1, 1991, p. 198.
  27. Philadelphia County wills, Book A, p. 210.
  28. The coincidence of Jane Austin being the daughter of Elizabeth Bennet did not occur to me until I had researched this family for several years.
  29. Bucks County deeds, various books, 1691, 1692, 1696.
  30. Philadelphia Monthly Meeting, Births deaths and burials 1688-1826, image 123, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935.
  31. Thomas M. Potts devotes an entire chapter to this topic in his 1901 book. In the chapter “Kinship of the Potts’ of Pennsylvania”, he lists over twenty examples of interactions between the members of the first generation, as well as their children.
  32. The Potts Family. George is not in the book, but is listed in other web sources on this family, including Claudia Davenport-Sullivan’s series of well-documented Findagrave biographies.
  33. Claudia Davenport-Sullivan’s public Ancestry tree at:
  34. He witnessed the marriage of his sister Jane to John Austin in 1686. After Thomas’ death, Judith married the widower Thomas Sharp of Gloucester, West Jersey. She survived him.
  35. Philadelphia County wills, Book D, p. 133. There is information about Thomas on the FindaGrave page for “Thomas ‘Miller’ Potts”, written by Claudia Davenport-Sullivan.
  36. Findagrave page for “Jone Unknown Potts”, written by Claudia Davenport-Sullivan.
  37. Besides her mother, her brothers Thomas and Jonas signed as witnesses. (Middletown Monthly Meeting, Minutes 1664-1807, image 44, on Ancestry, US Quaker Meeting Records 1681-1935, Bucks County)
  38. The Findagrave page of “Jonas Potts 1”, written by Claudia Davenport-Sullivan. Also see a post by her to the Potts Message Board, on Ancestry, on 24 March 2013, edited 2019.
  39. Philadelphia County wills, Book D, p. 351. A daughter Susanna had died before her father.
  40. The Croasdales were part of the well-known group traveling together with a certificate from Settle Monthly Meeting. Sometimes said to have been on the Welcome, they actually came on the Lamb. (Marion Balderston, “William Penn’s Twenty Three Ships”, in Walter Sheppard, Passengers and Ships prior to 1684; George McCracken, The Welcome Claimants, 1970).
  41. Philadelphia County wills, Book E, p. 142. There was no mention of Alice; she had died before him.

Thomas Iredell and Rebecca Williams

The Iredell family of Pennsylvania claims its descent from a Norman knight who supposedly saved the life of William the Norman at the Battle of Hastings. When Sir Pierre saved the king by slaying the enemies around him, the King said “Sir Pierre, thou hast given me eyre to breathe.” The king then gave the family a grant of land in Dale, or Dell, which led to the name Eyredale, from which it is a short step to Iredell.1  This is delightful, if apocryphal. The Eyre family of Bucks County has exactly the same story.2

Closer to historical reality, the family homestead was at Loweswater in Cumberland. Thomas Iredell, the immigrant, came with a certificate from the Monthly Meeting at Pardshaw Crag in Loweswater, issued 6th month 1700. Pardshaw was a stronghold of Quakerism. George Fox preached there in 1650 and a meeting of Friends, the first in Cumberland, was formed. At first the people met outside on Pardshaw Crag, until in 1672 a meeting house was built. “They dwell far distant from any church, and having high-crags or clinty rocks above the town, they have their great Quaking meetings there, from whence they do readily espye any who come to disturb their conventicles; and so they were wont to disperse before they were caught, to prevent their convictions…”3

The Iredell family had lived around Loweswater for years. In 1524 William Iredale was warned to mend his roof or pay a fine.4 In the 1660s and 1670s, Loweswater was full of Iredales; “Half of the families listed, [in the Hearth Tax list] 33 out of 67, shared only six surnames: Iredale, Pearson, Mirehouse, Burnyeat, Wilkinson or Jackson. There were no less than thirteen families of Iredale alone and confusion is made worse by the fact that the number of first names used was also very small.”5 The parish registers and tax lists show multiple Iredales named William, John, and Peter.

Thomas Iredell, the immigrant to Pennsylvania, is usually said to be the son of Robert Iredell and Ellinore Jackson of Rigg Bank.6 However Robert and Ellinore were apparently married on 26 April 1628, at Loweswater Church, ruling them out as parents for Thomas the immigrant.7 A Thomas Iredell with father Robert was christened on 6 Dec 1676 in Loweswater, but this is surely a different Robert.8 Given the number of Iredell or Iredale families around Loweswater, it is possible that Thomas’ parents will remain unidentified.

Thomas became a Quaker before 1700, when the meeting on Pardsay Crag in Cumberland gave him a certificate of fitness to carry to Pennsylvania.9 It stated that “he has of late years come frequently among Friends. His carriage appears to be sober and truthlike, those who know him best give no other account but well. He comes with consent of his mother, though [she was] no Friend, and inquiry hath been made as to his clearness in relation to marriage, and nothing appears to ye contrary.”10 One of the signers was John Burnyeat, possibly the prominent Quaker minister from Loweswater who converted early and travelled widely.11

After immigrating, Thomas lived in Philadelphia for several years, a member of Philadelphia Meeting. There he married Rebecca Williams, daughter of Thomas Williams and his first wife, under the care of the Friends Meeting in 1705.12 Thomas Williams had immigrated before 1686, when he declared his intention of marrying Rebecca Bennet, widow of William Bennet.13 However, his daughter Rebecca was not with Rebecca Bennet, who already had a daughter Rebecca with William Bennet. In early 1702 the court at Burlington found Thomas Williams guilty of fornication with his “wife’s daughter” Rebecca, who was by then married to John Scholey.14 Thomas Williams’ daughter Rebecca (as opposed to his step-daughter) probably immigrated separately. Her passage was paid by her cousin Abraham Hardiman and by Samuel Carpenter, who was married to Hannah Hardiman.15 This strongly suggests that Thomas William’s first wife was a Hardiman, that they were married in Pembrokeshire, Wales (where the Hardimans were from), and that their daughter Rebecca was born there.16 It is not clear why Rebecca Williams immigrated without her father, if in fact she did.17

After Thomas and Rebecca Iredell were married, they may have lived in Philadelphia at first. In 1710 they asked for a certificate from Philadelphia Meeting, as they had moved out of the limits of the meeting. They settled in Abington, where Thomas built a stone house which stood for more than 150 years.18 The land they lived on, 200 acres, was bought from Samuel Carpenter, married to Rebecca’s cousin Hannah Hardiman.

In 1712 Thomas gave in a paper of condemnation to Abington Meeting for his “unbecoming expression and foolish behaviour” to Sarah Hood. He remained in good standing and in 1717, when Horsham Meeting was established as a meeting for worship, he was one of five members who took the title to the land donated by Samuel Carpenter.19 “Horsham Meeting had its official beginning in a Youth’s Meeting, established in the spring of 1717….The road to Abington was a long and difficult one in those days, and it is unthinkable that such pious families as the Cadwalladers and Iredells would long be content to be deprived of the privilege of religious services.”20 Thomas was appointed overseer and represented Horsham Meeting at the Quarterly Meeting almost every year from 1717 to 1725.

Thomas died in 1st month 1726/27. He did not leave a will, and Rebecca served as the administrator. The inventory of his estate showed the household goods, farm tools, and animals of a prosperous farmer, with a value of £172.21 Rebecca was still in Horsham in 1734, when she was taxed for 200 acres.22

Children of Thomas and Rebecca:23

Mary, born about 1711, married in 1730 Thomas Good. They lived in Plumstead, where Thomas died in 1791.24

Abraham, married in 1740 Sarah Coffin. They lived in Horsham. Abraham died in 1749 and Sarah was one of the administrators of his estate, along with Isaac Cleaver and Abraham Lukens, who were both weavers.25

Rebecca, born 1717, died after 1797, married Isaac Cleaver in 1737 at Abington Mtg, son of Peter and Catharine. They lived in Cheltenham, where he was a weaver.26 Isaac died in 1797,  and left a will, naming Rebecca, his living daughters and some grandchildren. Children: Hannah, Mary, Rebecca, Rachel, Agnes, and Sarah. Of the six daughters, four married Tysons and the other two did not marry.

Robert, born 1721, died 1799, married in 1745 Hannah Lukens, daughter of Peter and Gainor. They lived in Horsham. Robert and his son Robert supported the British in the Revolution and some of their property was seized.27 Robert wrote his will in 1799, named his wife Hannah, six living children Seth, John, Jonathan, Robert, Abraham, Hannah.28

Rachel, died after 1800, married about 1745 Abraham Lukens, son of Peter and Gainor. They lived in Horsham, where Abraham was a weaver. He died in 1800. His will named wife Rachel, children Nathan, Robert, Seneca, Gaynor, Lydia.29

Hannah, married in 1745 Benjamin Fell under the auspices of Abington Meeting. They lived in Bucks County, where Benjamin died in 1758. In his will he mentioned a former wife (apparently Hannah) and present wife Sarah.30 He placed some of his children in the care of their aunts Mary Good and Rebecca Cleaver, and uncle Isaac Cleaver. Children John, Asa, Benjamin, Phebe, Deborah, Hannah, Thomas, Levi.

  1. W. W. H. Davis, History of Bucks County, 1876. Davis interviewed the people he profiled and got many of the early family stories from them. It’s a very warlike creation myth for a good Quaker family. One early comment on this story was from Thomas Allen Glenn, Welsh Founders of Pennsylvania, 1911, who points out that William the Conqueror would have spoken French, not English. The name of the knight is supposedly Sir Pierre d’Ancome, but this has not been confirmed in historical records.
  2. Battle, History of Bucks County, 1887.
  3. Thomas Denton, A Perambulation of Cumberland 1687-1688, quoted on the website of the Swindell one-name study at:, accessed April 2020.
  4. Roz Southey, Life in old Loweswater, 2008, p. 24
  5. Southey, p. 101.
  6. The assertion of the 1628 marriage is from Edgar Iredale, posted on an Ancestry message board, and from Chris Dickinson, posting on a Rootsweb mailing list. See below.
  7. Post by Dot Ravenswood, “Iredell marriage bond”, on Rootsweb message board Eng-Cul-Copeland, on 12/29/2004, at: She cites the Cumbria Family History Society newsletter, no date, with the source given as the Leeds Archive Collection at the West Yorkshire Archive Service. In 2002, Chris Dickinson posted the earliest Iredell entries from the Loweswater parish registers, taken from a photocopy, probably from local Cumberland repositories. They included the marriage of Robert Iredell and Ellinor Jackson on 26 April 1628. (Post to Rootsweb mailing list, (CUL-COP) Iredale Iredell Iredall, on 11 Oct 2002) In the same year Thomas Burnyeat married Margaret Iredell. Around the same time other men named Iredell were having children baptized or buried: John of Thackthwait, Thomas of Waterend, William, George, Thomas of Church Strate, another George, etc.
  8. The christening record is available on The parents of the immigrants were not Quakers (from Thomas’ 1700 certificate), so it is plausible to find a christening record for him.
  9. Albert Cook Myers, Quaker Arrivals at Philadelphia 1682-1750, 1902.
  10. Various online sources including Ellwood Roberts, Biog. Annals of Montgomery County, 1904. The Philadelphia MM records show that the certificate was received in 1703. There is a tradition that Iredell was accompanied on the voyage by his friend John Barns, who settled in Horsham with him. Barns was not a Quaker. (Charles H. Smith, “The Settlement of Horsham Township”, Old York Road Historical Society Bulletin, vol. IV, 1940)
  11. Burnyeat was a farmer from Crabtree Beck, Loweswater. He bought land in Pennsylvania, but did not immigrate, probably buying land only in support of Penn. Burnyeat died in Ireland in 1690.
  12. Thomas Williams married the widow Rebecca Bennet in 1686 as his second wife. She was the widow of William Bennett and had six children with him, including a daughter Rebecca. In 1702 Thomas Williams was found guilty by the Burlington court of fornication with his step-daughter Rebecca (his wife’s daughter, not his). By then Rebecca (the step-daughter) was married to John Scholey Jr.
  13. Thomas was living in Burlington, but Rebecca Bennet was living in Bucks County, and his intentions were in the records of Falls Monthly Meeting.
  14. In her will, proved in Philadelphia in February 1706/07, Rebecca Williams, as widow of Thomas Williams, carpenter, named her daughter Rebecca “Schooly” and other daughters, but not her step-daughter Rebecca Iredell. (Book C, p. 49)
  15. Abraham Hardiman’s will, proved in 1702, says that he paid the passage money for his cousins Rebecca Williams, John and Rebecca Harris, with Samuel Carpenter promising to pay the other half. (Philadelphia wills, Book B, p. 189)
  16. Abraham Hardiman of Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, married his first wife Diana Thomas in 6th month 1681, according to the records of Pembroke Monthly Meeting. The wedding certificate was signed by various Hardimans, Thomases, and John Burnyeat, among others. His son John was buried at Nesthook on 29th 7th month 1682. (Ancestry, England and Wales, Quaker birth marriage death registers 1578-1837, Herefordshire, Worchester, Wales, Piece 1365, Monthly Meeting of Pembroke Marriages) A daughter Mary was born in 3rd month 1684. Note that there are gaps in the burial records of Pembroke Meeting around 1685 to 1687. In the same source, Abraham Hardiman signed as a witness in March 1685 when Thomas Williams married a woman named Elizabeth. This is probably the other Thomas Williams who appeared in the records of Pembroke, even after the other Thomas Williams was in West Jersey.
  17. Abraham Hardiman did not mention Thomas Williams in his will. Just to keep things interesting, Abraham’s second wife was yet another Rebecca, Rebecca Willsford.
  18. Charles H. Smith, Settlement of Horsham.
  19. Settlement of Horsham.
  20. Smith, p. 74.
  21. Philadelphia County Administration Files 1726-28, on Ancestry. The inventory included carpenter tools. Is that how Thomas made his living while he was in Philadelphia?
  22. Harry C. Adams, Landholders in Philadelphia County outside the city 1734, 1990.
  23. Some lists add Sarah, who married Joseph Wilson in 1752.
  24. Federal census, Bucks County, 1790. No township listed, but near other people in Plumstead township.
  25. Philadelphia County administrations, 1749, no. 63.
  26. His occupation was noted in the 1749 administration papers for his brother-in-law Abraham Iredell.
  27. Posting to Quaker Roots mailing list, Aug. 4 1999; originally from the Pennsylvania Packet May 13, 1778. It is said that the younger Robert led the British to the Battle of Crooked Billet.
  28. Montgomery County wills, Book 2, p. 114. The birth of several other children were noted in Abington Monthly Meeting records, but they died before their father.
  29. Montgomery County wills, Book 2, p. 166.
  30. Bucks County wills, Book 2, p. 342.

Peter Cleaver and Catherine Shoemaker

Peter Cleaver was an early settler at Germantown, buying land there in 1689.1  As a German Quaker he could have come from one of two areas in the Rhineland. A small group of Quakers from Krefeld, near Dusseldorf, formed a monthly meeting there. Almost all of them immigrated together in 1683, sailing on the Concord, and drawing lots for land in Germantown.2 Since that was such a small close-knit group, it is possibly that Peter lived further south along the Rhine. Another group of Quakers lived in a broader area around Kriegsheim (now Monsheim), 170 miles south of Krefeld.3 Most of these people had been Mennonites who were converted to Quakerism by traveling missionaries, including William Penn himself.4 Peter is not listed in known lists of Mennonites, such as the censuses of Kreigsheim, but other known Mennonites such as the Umstat family are missing from those lists as well.5

In any case, Peter Cleaver first appeared in Germantown records in 1689 when he bought a lot of 50 acres from William Strepers.6 In 1691 Peter was naturalized, along with many of his German neighbors, taking an oath of allegiance to the English crown and thereby gaining the freedom to own land and conduct business as natives.7 In 1692 he signed a petition against a tax bill, and the following year appeared on the tax list.8 In 1695 he added to his holding by buying 25 acres from the carpenter John Silans.9 In the deed Peter was listed as a husbandman, but like many of the Germans, he was also a weaver.10

In 1695 at Abington Meeting Peter married Catherine Shoemaker, the daughter of Peter Shoemaker. She came from Kriegsheim with her father and sisters on the Francis and Dorothy in 1685.11 Her name is often Anglicized to Gertrude or Catherine, but she was from a family that spoke a Rheinisch dialect of German; her name as they spoke it probably sounded more like Geertje. The English Quakers of Abington meeting who recorded their marriage intention wrote it as Catherine. The marriage would have been performed in Germantown, where the Quakers of the town met, first in the house of Thones Kunders, later in a small log meetinghouse.12

In 1699 Peter and Catherine sold their 50-acre tract in Germantown to Reyner Janson and moved to nearby Bristol Township.13 They would remain there for the rest of their lives. In 1721 Peter and his son Peter bought 165 acres near Upper Dublin or Whitemarsh. There they built a stone house with several outbuildings.14 The younger Peter lived there, while his father stayed in Bristol.

In 1709 Peter had a difference with William Harmer. They took it to Abington Meeting, which chose four men to “hear and determine it”. This was done and the difference settled. In 1724 Peter was chosen as an overseer for Germantown, responsible for guiding the younger generation in Quaker ways.15 The births of several of the children of Peter and Catherine were recorded at Abington Meeting, and most (though not all) of the children married under the auspices of the Meeting. Catherine does not appear in the meeting records, except for the record of her marriage; she may not have been comfortable speaking English. The date of her death is not known, but she was not named in Peter’s 1727 will and must have died before him.

Peter could not write and signed his will only with his initials. In the will, written in 12th month 1727 and proved the same month, he named all seven of his children.16 The sons Isaac and John received land, while the other children got cash legacies. The inventory of his property included the usual household goods, farm tools and animals, as well as the plantations in Bristol and Cheltenham.17 The family of Peter and Catherine was prolific, and by the time their granddaughter Elizabeth married Jacob Kirk in 1760, twelve Cleavers signed their marriage certificate.18

Children of Peter and Catharine:

Christine, born 1696, married William Melchior in April 1727 at Christ Church, Philadelphia. In her father’s will as Christiann Melchier.19 Her father left her £20 in his will, but left her younger sister Agnes £30, so Christine probably received a marriage portion from her father before he died.

Peter Jr., born 1697, died 1776, married 1722 Elizabeth Potts, daughter of David and Alice (Croasdale), and lived in Upper Dublin. Elizabeth died in 1762; Peter died in 1776.20 He left a will naming children Peter, Nathan, Elizabeth, John, Isaac, and Ezekiel.21 A daughter Mary had died unmarried in 1744. His land was to be sold and the proceeds divided among the children. Most of the children remained Quakers and married in meetings.22

Derrick, born about 1702, died possibly 1768. He married in 1725, at Abington Meeting, Mary Potts, daughter of Thomas and Magdalen. Derrick and Mary supposedly settled in the Oley valley, since Mary’s father owned a share of the iron furnace at Colebrookdale. Derrick burned limestone in a kiln on his farm to sell to the furnace. He owned much land in Amity and Douglass Townships, becoming the first tax collector of Douglass Township and was himself the largest taxpayer, paying £16 in 1759.23 Children: John, Elizabeth, Martha, Mary and another daughter.

Eve, married a man named Adams after 1722. His first name is not known. No further information.

John, born about 1705, died 1773. In 1729 at Abington Meeting he married Elizabeth Levering Taylor, daughter of William Levering & Catherine and widow of a man named Taylor. They lived in Bristol on land bequeathed to him by his father. In a property release of 1748 he called himself a weaver. John died in 1773 and left a will.24 Children: Peter, Elizabeth, William, Sarah, John, Hannah and a daughter Mary who died before her father.25

Isaac, born 1713, died 1799. In 1737 at Abington Meeting he married Rebecca Iredell, daughter of Thomas and Rebecca. Isaac and Rebecca lived in Cheltenham and had six daughters, four of whom married Tysons.26 In his will of 1797, he left Rebecca £150 and the income of the estate.27 He left a clock to the oldest daughter Hannah; at her death it was to go to her son Isaac Tyson. He also named his daughter Mary and six of her children: Peter, Rynear, Benjamin, Jesse, Mary and Hannah Tyson.28 He died in 1799. The inventory of his estate included the household goods of a prosperous farmer, valued at over £1350. Children of Isaac and Rebecca: Hannah, Mary, Rebecca, Rachel, Agnes, Sarah.

Agnes, m. Richard Shoemaker, son of George Jr. and Sarah (Wall)29

  1. William Jessup Cleaver, Some of the descendants of Peter Cleaver, 1983, available on Internet Archive, cites a family tradition that Peter Cleaver was English. Given Peter’s marriage and his early settlement in Germantown, the English ancestry can be ruled out.
  2. These are the well-known original 13 settlers of Germantown, including the op den Graeff brothers, Rynear Tyson, Tönis Kunders, Jan Luken, and others.
  3. Peter Schumacher, Gerret Hendricks, and Hans Peter Umstat all came from this area and settled in Pennsylvania. For the story of how they left Kriegsheim in 1685, see John Ruth, Maintaining the Right Fellowship, pp. 68-69.
  4. William Penn, William Ames, and William Caton all visited this part of the upper Rhineland, where the Mennonites were friendly to them, and some were converted to Quakerism. (John Ruth, Maintaining the Right Fellowship, 1984; Claus Bernet, “Quaker Missionaries in Holland and North Germany…”, Quaker History, 95(2), 2006, available on JSTOR.
  5. Cris Hueneke website at, accessed April 2020.
  6. Acta Germanopolis, p. 456. The sale was confirmed three years later. (Acta Germanopolis, p. 295)
  7. Pennypacker, Settlement of Germantown. The original document is held by the Beechly Library, Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.
  8. Acta Germanopolis, p. 295; Hull, William Penn and the Dutch Quakers, p. 417.
  9. Acta, p. 304, 416.
  10. He described himself as a weaver in his will, although by then he owned two plantations, one in Bristol and one in Cheltenham. The inventory of his estate included a loom and over 50 pounds of yarn.
  11. Cleaver manuscript
  12. The house of Thones Kunders no longer stands, but a historical marker commemorates its site. It has special significance as the place where the first American protest against slavery was signed by 1688 by Frances Daniel Pastorius, Garret Hendricks, Derick and Abraham up de Graeff. The protest was passed up from the Abington Monthly Meeting to the Quarterly Meeting at Philadelphia to the Yearly Meeting at Burlington. (Pennypacker, Settlement of Gtn) At this early date many Quakers, including William Penn himself, still kept slaves, and the Society was not ready to condemn it.
  13. James Duffin, “Germantown Landowners, 1683-1714”, Germantown Crier. Bristol Township (not to be confused with Bristol, Bucks County, was a former township in Philadelphia County, adjoining Germantown to the east. In 1854, it was consolidated as a government unit into the City and County of Philadelphia. (A map of the former townships (now neighborhoods) can be found in the Wikipedia article on the Act of Consolidation, 1854.)
  14. William J. Cleaver.
  15. Abington Monthly Meeting minutes.
  16. Philadelphia County Wills, Book E, p. 72. It is estate #76 for 1727.
  17. The inventory was taken 26 Jan 1727/28. (Philadelphia County original estates, City Hall, Philadelphia)
  18. Abington Monthly Meeting marriages, 14th 5th month 1760. Jacob was the son of John and Sarah Kirk of Abington.
  19. The records of Christ Church, Philadelphia, list the marriage and give his name as William Molshon. (Pennsylvania Marriages prior to 1810, PA Archive, series 2, vol. 8)
  20. Abington Monthly Meeting records.
  21. Philadelphia County wills, book Q, p. 292.
  22. Records of Abington MM, and their family Bible (in a folder at the HSP, found Feb. 2011)
  23. William J. Cleaver, manuscript, pp. 12-14.
  24. Philadelphia County wills book P, p. 478 as John Clever.
  25. Cleaver manuscript and John’s will.
  26. Jordan, p. 698.
  27. Montgomery County probate records, RW #950. He should not be confused with his cousin Isaac Cleaver, son of Peter and Elizabeth, who died in Upper Dublin, Montgomery County, in 1797 (Montgomery County probate #RW 949).
  28. Abstracted at:
  29. Smith, Settlement of Horsham.  Sarah was a daughter of Richard Wall. The family of Richard Wall was not the same as the Waln family, although they are sometimes confused.  Richard Wall was received in 1682 from the meeting of Stock Orchard, Gloucester. (Albert Cook Myers, Quaker Arrivals at Pa.), while Nicolas Waln emigrated with the Settle group.

Isaac Cleaver and Rebecca Iredell

Isaac was born in 1713, the son of Peter Cleaver and Catherine Shoemaker of Bristol, Philadelphia County. His father Peter was a farmer and weaver. Isaac grew up there, one of seven children in a Quaker family. In 1737 he married at Abington Meeting Rebecca Iredell, daughter of Thomas and Rebecca Williams. Isaac and Rebecca lived in Cheltenham and had six daughters, four of whom married Tysons.1  Isaac was respected in Abington meeting, though not active. In 1754 he was chosen as overseer.2

Isaac died in 1799. In his will of 1797, he left Rebecca £150 and the income of the estate.3 He left a clock to the oldest daughter Hannah; at her death it was to go to her son Isaac Tyson. He also named his grandson John Tyson, son of Agnes, and three children of his daughter Hannah. He named his daughter Mary and six of her children: Peter, Rynear, Benjamin, Jesse, Mary and Hannah Tyson.4 He died two years later. The inventory of his estate included the household goods of a prosperous farmer, valued at over £1350. The daughters were Hannah, Mary, Rebecca, Rachel, Agnes, Sarah. Only Hannah outlived her father.

Daughters of Isaac and Rebecca:

Hannah or Ann, born 1st month 1737/38, married in 1759 John Tyson, son of John and Priscilla, at Abington Meeting. She married second Thomas Leech in 1774 at Abington Meeting. He died in 1804 in Upper Dublin. Hannah died after 1797.

Mary, born 1st month 1739/40, died 1787. In 1760 she married Rynear Tyson, son of Peter and Mary. They lived in Abington and attended Upper Dublin Friends Meeting for worship. In 1774 Abington meeting reported that Rynear Tyson, son of Peter, had been drinking strong liquor to excess and had sued a Friend at law. Testimony was prepared against him and he was apparently disowned.5 Rynear died in 1796. In his will, written in 1793, he named his second wife Elizabeth (about whom nothing is known), children Peter, Rynear, Jacob, Benjamin, Thomas, Jesse, Mary and Hannah.6

Rebecca, born 3rd month 1742, died 1765, age 19

Rachel, born 1st month 1744/45, died 1765, probably unmarried

Agnes, born 12th mo 1746/47, died 1779 at age 31, married in 1766 Joseph Tyson, son of John and Priscilla, the brother of John Tyson who married her sister Hannah. Agnes and Joseph had children Rebecca and John before Agnes’ death in 1779. Joseph later married Agnes Luken.7

Sarah, born 2nd month 1751, married 12th mo 1772/73 Isaac Tyson, son of Isaac and Sarah, at Abington Meeting. Sarah and Isaac had a daughter Abigail before Sarah’s death at age 22. Isaac then married Lydia Tomkins and had four children with her.8

  1. John Jordan, Colonial Families of Philadelphia, 1911, p. 698.
  2. Abington Monthly Meeting minutes, 12th month 1754.
  3. Montgomery County probate records, RW #950, Book 2, p. 122. He should not be confused with his cousin Isaac Cleaver, son of Peter and Elizabeth, who died in Upper Dublin, Montgomery County, in 1797 (Montgomery County probate #RW 949).
  4. Abstracted at:
  5. Abington MM Minutes, microfilm at Friends Historical Library, volume 1.5, page 10. This might explain why the children of Rynear and Mary did not marry as Friends. At least three of their children lived to young adulthood but died unmarried.
  6. Abstracts of Montgomery Co. Wills, p. 83. RW6832; Orphan’s Court record OC7827.
  7. William Jessup Cleaver , Some Descendants of Perer Cleaver, 1983, p. 17, on Internet Archive.
  8. Cleaver manuscript, p. 17-18.

Samuel Worthington and Mary Carver

The Worthington brothers, John and Samuel, arrived a generation later than the first rush of Quakers in 1682. There are no records of their parents in Pennsylvania; they probably came together as young men.1 Worthington is a common name in Lancashire and it is possible they came from there.2 John Worthington married Mary Walmsley in 1720 and had a large family. Samuel married four years later, declaring his intentions in early 1724 to marry Mary Carver.3 She was the daughter of William Carver and his second wife Mary.4 They were married under the care of Abington Monthly Meeting, which had jurisdiction over Friends who lived in Byberry.5

The Friends of Byberry had their own meeting for worship, held first at member’s houses, then in a log meeting house, finally in 1714 in a large stone meeting house with galleries upstairs.6 To transact business such as getting a marriage approved, they would travel to Abington Monthly Meeting, which initially rotated among the meetings at Frankfort (also called Oxford), Byberry and Abington. After 1710 all the monthly meetings were at the meeting house in Abington.7 The ride from Byberry to Abington Meeting was about ten miles, and would have been a hard one on the rough roads of the day.

For the first twelve years of their marriage, Samuel and Mary moved four times. They moved to Buckingham Meeting in 1726 and spent three years there before moving back to Byberry.8 In the spring of 1732 their house was burnt to the ground with all the household goods, always a hazard when wooden houses were lit by candles.9 Samuel and Mary moved their family to the Manor of Moreland, living as tenants there.10 Their servant man Malaci Garvi ran away and they advertised for his return.11 In 1736 they moved back to Buckingham, at the same time as William Carver Jr., Mary’s brother.12

Samuel and Mary were Quakers, members of several different meetings, but they did not live a blameless life as far as the Society was concerned. In late 1724, several months after their marriage, Abington meeting reported that they had been intimate before their marriage and they were forced to acknowledge the fault. The minutes reported that “Saml Worthington being Lately Married Amongst us Delivered a paper Relateing to his offence together with his wife touching their uncleanness with Each Other before marriage Signifying their sorrow for ye Same. Friends do Order that ye said Paper or a Coppy of ye Same be Publickly Read at Byberry Meeting upon a first Day.”13 After submitting this paper they remained in good standing, but their children did not marry as Friends.

Samuel died in 1775, living in New Britain, and leaving a will that named his wife and seven surviving children, as well as nephew Isaac Worthington.14 The witnesses were Joseph Carver, William Worthington and David Evans.15 The will provided that his beloved wife Mary should get the interest from the estate after the sale of the land. After her death the residual estate would be divided among sons Jonathan, David and Samuel. The date of her death is not known.

The inventory of Samuel’s estate was taken by David Evans and Thomas Goode. It included a riding mare and saddle, featherbeds, two Delft bowls and plates, a chest of drawers, a looking glass, chairs, some tobacco, a dough trough, brass kettle, pepper box, tin funnel and cream jug, chopping knife, a hat brush, an old water pot, a snuff bottle, two mares and their colts, three cows, a sow and seven pigs, four shoats, three hives with bees, grain in the garret, oats, buckwheat, bran, dried beef, smoked bacon and gammon, seven acres of green corn in the ground, and an old churn with some soap.16 The inventory was particularly interesting because it included the rooms of the house: the “room”, the kitchen, the stable and out house, the garret, and the cellar. There were two beds in the “room” and one in the garret, not a lot for two parents and seven children.

Children of Samuel and Mary:17 (The order is uncertain, based here mostly on dates of marriage. This is not the order that Samuel wrote in his will.)

Hester, m. about 1750 Anthony Kimble, son of Anthony and Matilda. After Hester died, he married a woman named Sarah. Anthony had thirteen children; it is not known how many of them were with Hester. Anthony died in 1796. In 1798 his widow Sarah (by then remarried) released her dower to a piece of land for  payment of £50.18

Jonathan, b. about 1737, d. 1801 in New Britain. Jonathan married first, Ann Wilson, widow of Daniel Knight. She died in 1775 and Jonathan married Charity Fell. After her death he married Mary Naylor Childs. He had children with Ann (Benjamin, David, Israel, James, Jonathan and Phebe) and with Mary (Zenas, Cephas, Jane, Macre, William). Jonathan died in 1801.19

David, alive in 1775. He is probably the David Worthington who married Sarah Williams in June 1768 at the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, lived in New Britain, and died in 1834, leaving heirs.20

Samuel, alive in 1775. He may have been the Samuel Worthington Jr whose servant Patrick Connor ran away in 1769.21 Samuel may have moved to Virginia.22

Rachel, married in 1765 John Rice, son of Edward and Elizabeth.23 In 2nd month 1759 Buckingham Meeting reported that Rachel Worthington was with child; is that this Rachel?  They were married by license dated August 1765.24 She is probably the Rachel Rice who wrote a will in 1816, naming children Mary, Elizabeth, Hannah, Ann, James, Edward and John.25

Pleasant, around 1769 she married a man named Lapp or Delaps. She married contrary to Quaker rules and to a man who was not a Friend.26 In Samuel’s will she is called Pleasant Lapp; in a record of Buckingham Monthly Meeting disowning her for going out in marriage, it is Delaps. There was a German family of John Lapp living in New Britain around 1755 to 1760; did Pleasant marry one of John’s sons?27

Sarah, born about 1740, married in 1770 William Kimble, son of Anthony and Matilda. They lived in Buckingham, probably on land inherited from Matilda’s father Richard Morrey. Sarah and William had nine children. Children: Jonathan, Richard, Martha, John, Isaiah, William, Christopher, Sarah, Frances.28

  1. It is often said that they arrived in 1705 and settled first in Byberry. No records have been found for their arrival. (Joseph Martindale, History of the Townships of Byberry and Moreland, 1867)
  2. There are other Worthington families in Bucks County and Philadelphia at the time. Richard Worthington and his wife settled in Wrightstown and founded a large family. Daniel Worthington and his wife brought a certificate to Abington Monthly Meeting from Philadelphia in 1728. (Martindale) The descendants of Samuel Worthington were known as the “Plumstead Worthingtons” to distinguish them. (W. W. H. History of Bucks County, 1876)
  3. Abington Monthly Meeting Minutes, 25 3rd month 1724.
  4. Some sources claim that the younger Mary was the daughter of William and Joan Kinsey, his first wife, but she died about 1692, leaving only a daughter Sarah, and William remarried, to a woman whose last name is unknown. (After Mary died, William married again, to Grace Carter. He had one daughter with her, but most of his children were with Mary.)
  5. The meetings are shown on a map in James Bowden, History of the Society of Friends in America, Vol. II: Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1854.
  6. Martindale; Isaac Comly, “Sketches of the History of Byberry”, in Memoirs of the Hist. Soc. Pa, Vol II, 1827; John and Isaac Comly, “History of Byberry Meeting”, Friends Miscellany, Vol. VII, 1835.
  7. Arthur and Ann Jenkins, A Short History of Abington Monthly Meeting, 1929; “Account of Abington Monthly Meeting”, Friends’ Miscellany, vol. 9, 1837, John and Isaac Comly (eds.)
  8. They brought a certificate from Abington to Buckingham Monthly Meeting, accepted on 1st 9th month 1726. In 10th month (December) 1729 Abington Monthly Meeting accepted a certificate from him from Buckingham Meeting. They must have been in transit that month, since in December 1729 Samuel was on a coroner’s jury to hear the death of Alexander Tomson, killed when felling a tree that fell “contrary-wise”. (PA Genealogical Magazine, vol. 35(3), 1988)
  9. Scott, Kenneth and Janet Clarke, Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette 1748-1755, p. 284: 13 April 1732. “Samuel Worthington, of Byberry, Friday last his house was burnt to the ground.” The fuller text is on the webpage of Anne White, “The Worthingtons and allied families”,, accessed March 2020. Anne White gathered many Worthington records.
  10. Philadelphia County Landholders, 1734, online.
  11. Samuel advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette for February 1, 1733.
  12. Abington granted them a certificate on 26 2nd month 1736, “to recommend them to Friends at Buckingham”. William Carver Sr. died that year and left land in Byberry to his wife and son William; did the widow Grace Carter buy out the share of her stepson William Jr?
  13. 22 12th month (February) 1724/25, Abington Monthly Meeting Minutes. The record said 1724, but it must have happened after their marriage in 3rd month 1724.
  14. This bequest is the proof that Samuel was the brother of John Worthington of Byberry. The will was recorded in book 3, p. 406.
  15. Joseph was Mary’s nephew. He was married to a Worthington.
  16. Bucks County estate files #1460, inventory taken 17 March 1775.
  17. No birth dates have been found for them. They were probably born between 1724 and 1744.
  18. Bucks County Deeds, book 29, p. 449. There is no other Anthony in his generation. Many Ancestry trees show a death date of 1816 for Hester, but I can find no record that shows this.
  19. Research of John McKee, online at, accessed March 2020. The house that Jonathan built in 1768 is still standing in Doylestown.
  20. Presbyterian Church Records on Ancestry; Bucks County Orphans Court Record #4463 (book 8, p. 303; book 9, p. 80, 311)
  21. Runaway Servants, Convicts and Apprentices, 1728-1796, compiled by Farley Grubb.
  22. Ancestry trees, no evidence.
  23. Some researchers read this as Rue (starting with W. W. H. Davis), but the original will clearly shows Rice. And the marriage license shows his name as Rice.
  24. Compiled Pennsylvania Marriages, on Ancestry.
  25. Bucks County wills, Book 9.
  26. Buckingham MM minutes, 6th month 1769. Testimony was prepared against her.
  27. Davis, History of Bucks County; a John Lapp died in 1793. Was that Pleasant’s husband?
  28. The names were given in a Montgomery County Orphan’s Court record #10915, in a petition by Peter Tyson, husband of Martha Kimble.